• 2 Apsekte bei Alkoholkonsum entscheidend: Menge pro Episode (bout size) und Zeispanne zwischen Episoden (bout intervalls). Uberschätzung der Fahrtüchtigkeit va bei Jugendlichen ab 0.25 Promille.
    Quelle: Samson 2000 Addiction
  • Alcohol biologically distorts purchasing decisions to trick consumers into paying more for alcohol. This fact may facilate support for controls on alcohol sales and marketing. Behavioral decisionmaking shows that alcohol has a predictable unfair advantage over other products. Behaviroal choices are based upon expected value of potentially available rewards. Alcohol like other drugs specifically disrupts calculations made by the brain reward circuitry. To determine the value of naturallyrewarding products the brain conducts an indepth calculation of the impact of consumption of the product on the consumer within his current and histroical environment. Alcohol shortciruits this assessment by pharmacologically augmenting a signal indicating the dieference between the preicted value of the reward and the observed reward, such that the ciruit mistakenly calculates that it underestimated the value of consuming alcohol regradless of whether the drinker was helpeld or hurt as a result of drinking. As the brain corrects its underestimates it increases expectations about the value of alcohol consumption. This leads the drinker to overvalue alcohol and thus favor working harder to obtain alcohol even if the product provided no objective or subjective benefit to the user. While other products undergo strict evaluations of their worth by the brains reward circuitry, alcohol cheats by reprogramming the circuit to rate it as better than expected regardless of the actual effects on the user or original expectations.
    Quelle: Trafton 2007 Addiction
  • Science headline 1997: Addiction is a brain deease: The brain of an addicted patient no onger functions like a normal brain.It has lost the freedom to decide when confronted with the object of its addiction. Emergence of addctiology as a medical discipline in its own right.
    Quelle: Reynoud 2007 Addiction
  • Alkohol wirkt auf verschiede Gehirnsyseme: Als erstes Dopoaminsystem, dann GBA und schließlich NMBA. Dadurch 2-Phasenwirkung erst Enthemmung dann Dämpfung.
    Quelle: Li et al 2007 Addiction