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Normales Trinken

  • Zwischen dem 12. und 16. Lebensjahr bildet sich ein Trinkstil heraus. Ab da sind nur noch 10 Prozent abstinent und ein Drittel sind regelmäßige Trinker.
    Quelle: Jahrbuch Sucht 2003
  • Deutschland
    • weiterhin mit Rang 5 weltweit Spitzenguppe im Gesamtverbrauch
      20,2 Mrd EUR volkswirtschaftliche Kosten durch alkoholassoziierte Erkrankungen
    • Rückgang bei Bier führt zu vestärkten Anstrengungen der Industrie: Verpackung und Biermischgetränke für jugendliche Zielgruppe.
    • Alcopops mittlerweile beliebtestes alkoholisches Getränk bei 14-18 Jährigen. Bei 18-30 Jährigen häufigstes alkoholisches Geränk.
    • Preise für Alkohol geringe gestiegen als allgemeine Lebenhaltungskosten.
    • Quelle: Jahrbuch Sucht 2005
  • Alkoholkonsum und seine Veränderung in Russland:
    • Wodka gibt es seit dem 16.Jahrhundert, aber erst seit dem 19.Jahrhundert mit einem Alkoholgehalt über 20 Prozent. Lange gab es aufgrund der hohen Preise (Wodka kostete soviel wie eine Kuh) mehr städtisches Trinken. Erst nach 2. Weltkrieg starker Anstieg und täglicher Konsum. Seit 1985 illegale Herstellung aber kein Rückgang durch das Antialkoholgesetz von Gorbatschow. Danach weiterer Anstieg. Lange Zwangsbehandlung. V.a. Richtlinie, die auf Psychotherapie (Kodierung) hindeutet; nicht evaluiert. Starke Alkoholtoleranz verbreitet..
      Quelle: Nemtsov 2005 Addiction.
    • 12-14 Liter Alkohol pro Jahr in Russland. 70-80% Wodka und illegal produzierte Spirituosen. Ein Drittel der Männer geben zu, mindestens einmal pro Monat Rauschtrinken (Binge drinking) zu betreiben. Russische Totschlags- und Selbstmord-Sterblichkeitsraten gehören zu den höchsten in der Welt. Sie sind 5 mal höher als in den USA und 15-20 mal höher als in Europa.
      Quelle: Pridemore & Chamlin 2006 Addiction
  • Situation in Österreich:
    • Seit 1973 Rückgang des Konsums um 16% (Uhl et al 2005). Rückgang der Verkehrsunfälle mit Verletzen um 74% und der Toten um 85%. Rückgang der Alkoholbeteiligung an Verkehrstoten um ca 50%. Ab 1998 0.5 Promille Regelung. Seit 1992 Führerschein auf Probe mit 0,1 Promille.
  • Schweiz: 0,5 Promille im Straßenverkehr ab 2003. 1999 Durch GATT Verhandlungen deutliche Steuerreduktion auf ausländische Spirituosen. Deutliche Konsumzunahme.
    Quelle: Barbor et al 2005
  • Myth of heavy drinking Australian because of special ration of rum in First Fleet of convicts. Harsh environment far from home, rum the only escape, entertainment and currency. So called Rum Corps. 13 Litres of annual consumption. Most devasting impact on Aboriginal people to exchange for sexual favours, payment for labour and to incite fighting as street entertainment. Public house: masculine character and egalitarian aspirations of ealry Australian society. Pub with social focus on working class in an aera when there were few leisure acilities. The "shout", whereby each man in a group was expected in turn to buy drinks for all.
    By end of 19th century industrialization emphazied material security and relied heavily on order, authority and conformism. The tide was turning against heavy drinking. Temperance movement. Alcohol consumption fell substantially, limit the availability of alcohol, sale banned on Sunday, minnimum age. Great depression in 1920 reduced drinking to less than 2.5 litres per person. Raise after II World War to 9,3 to 9,8 litres. Change to beer. Emerging popularity of alcopops. Increase in wine consumption because of women. Reduction by health campaigns. Now 7.3 litres. 44 % of the alcohol consumed in risky manner. Binge drinking of young people. Highest consumption in northern territories. 67.000 hospitalized per year because of alcohol.all.
    Quelle: Midford, 2005 Addiction
  • Alcohol in India
    India generally regarded as a traditionally dry culture. Only 21% of adult male drink alcohol. But wide variation in a comlex country. 7% in Western state of Gujarat and 75% in North Eastern Arunachal Pradesh. Avarage is 2-4 litres per person. No histroical support for the notion of a long standing dry culture. But drinking acquired the stature of a peculiarly English vice. Mass movementes against drinking as a symbol of colonial oppression. No safe drinking behavior. 50% of drinkers are hazardous drinkers. Alcohol accounts for over a fifth of hospital admission but unregognized by primary care physicians. Lowering of age ot initionation of drinking. Alcohol sales increase by 7-8% in the past 3 years. 4% of adult polulation dependent. 20% hazardous drinking.
    Quelle: Benegal 2005 Addiction
  • Östereichische Gesellschaft für Allgemeinmedizin und Familienmedizin (www.oegam.at)
    900.000 Alkohol, Missbrauch. 7% täglicher Konsum, 72,8% gelegentlicher Konsum. 10,9 Liter reiner Alkohol pro Kopf pro Jahr. 330.000 alkoholkrank. Höherer Anteil als in Deutschland. 8000 Tote pro Jahr.
    Quelle: Österreich
  • Alkohol in Großbritannien
    9. Position in Alkoholkonsum in Europa, aber 2. in der Bierproduktion. 1,4 Millionen Arbeitsplätze durch Alkohol. In 2003 jede Minute 74.766 Pfund für Alkohol ausgegeben. Anstieg des Verbrauchs von 6,6 Liter in 1973 auf 9.1 Liter in 2002. 27% der Männer und 17% der Frauen trinken mehr als Grenzwerte (24g bzw.12 Drinks pro Woche), und 7% der Männer bzw. 3% der Frauen trinken mehr als gefährlichen Grenzwert (50 bzw 30 Drinks pro Woche). 7 Millionen Missbrauch und mindestens 1 Million Alkoholabhängige. 11.000 bis 17.000 Totdesfälle durch Alkohol pro Jahr. 2004 Regierungsprogramm (stark beeinflusst durch Alkoholindustrie): Keine Maßnahmen gegen Gesamtkonsum sondern gegen Bingedrinking. UK Alkohol Treatment Trial: Standard motivational Treatment and novel social networking Therapy did equally well.
    Quelle: Raistrick 2005 Addiction
  • Alcohol in France
    Consumption decreased from 1960 to 2004 from 19 to 10 litres per capita per year. From traditional beverage to quality wines and international brands of beer and spirits. Alcohol is no longer drunk at every meal or even every day. Less during working hours and more during leisure time. As in northern Europe it is becoming the drink for parties, football matches and rock concerts. Less frequently used as food but more as a drug for its psychoactive effects. Young people and the city dwellers are the main players in these changes as they are refusing to follow the habits of their parents. Decrease in mortalty and morbidity related to alcohol but increase in social harm due to binge drinking. Liver cirrhosis decreased from 15.000 to 10.000 per year. Local groups (Vie Libre, Croix d'Or, Croix Bleue), 220 outpatients centres and residential care. Adverts must show only the product: the use of images of drinkers is not allowed
    Quelle: Craplet 2005 Addiction
  • Regional convergence: mortality due to alcohol decreased in eastern Germany and increased in western Germany. N= 5255 W and 2211 E. Decrease 1991 to 1998 mor pronounced in E. Convergence in regions and gender. North less abstainers but no difference in volume. Different beverage. Higher mortality in E.
    Quelle: Bloomfield et al 2005 Addiction
  • Alcohol in Tailand
    Market dominated by domestically produced international brand beverages. Such joint ventures enjoy custom taxfree status. Price could be reduced by half. Alcohol ranks third as a health risk factors for males and 11th for females. Road traffic injuries major problem. Prevalence of alcohol dependence  was 19,4% for males and 4.1% for females.
    Quelle: Thamarangsi 2006 Addiction
  • Alcohol in Spain
    Spain experienced a sustained decrease in per capita alcohol consumption form 1975 (14,2l) to 1995 (9,3l) of pure alcohol per inhabitant aged 15-65 years per year. Beer indrustry succeeded in shifting drinking habits from wine to beer. In 2002 beer was for the first time the principal contributor to per capita alcohol consumption with a share of 38%. Wine 37% spirits 25%. Spain i a society in transition where traditional drinking patterns persistent in older and rural populations, while young urban people clearly adhere to the new drinkng patterns which tend to harmonize all over Europe. Traditional drinking patterns are chracterized by drinking daily durring meals and avoiding intoxication, while the new drinking patterns are characterizde by intermittent drinking, mainly during the weekend in leisure hours and often leading to intoxication. Botellon phenomenon. Youth aged 14-18 years show an increase in last month drunkeness for 19% in 2002 to 35% in 2004. Relative decrease of price of alcoholic bereages. 100% of drug usere tend to combine their drug of preference with alcohol. Alcohol is now the first drug of abuse. Spain has experiecend the biggest increases in the stringency of alohol policies in Europe: Legal drinking age to 18 years, legal alcohol concentration to .5 promille, routine BAC tests, restrictions on alcohol advertising
    Quelle: Gual 2006 Addiction
  • Alcohol in Czech Republic
    Beer represented about half of total alcohol consumption. 161,7 litre per capita consumption in 2003. World champion. Total alcohol 10,2 litre. Increase since 1990. 22,6% of men daily consumption of >40g and 10,6% of women >20g.
    Quelle: Kubika 2006 Addiction
  • A substantial shift downward in the meaning of drunkenness occurred in the US between 1979 and 2000. Study is focuses on the meaning of drunkenness and the social demographic and regulatory forces that appear to influence it, as well as on its relationship with alcohol consumption measures. Reflects a significant change in american drinking culture toward more moderate expectations regarding intoxication. Despite a decline in average alcohol intake and heavy drinking days, more subjects reported being drunk in the past year and being so more often in the laer 2 surveys. There seems to be a lag in the socal constructions of what it means to be drunk as related to normative aggregate sonsumtion.
    Quelle: Kerr et al 2006
  • Alcohol in Sweden
    In 1920 a ration book system was implemented on a national level. People over 20 years of age were allowed 1-4 litres of spirits per month. Abolished in October 1955 led to an dramatic increase in alcoholrelated harm. Mainly heavy drinkers increased their drinking, little change in light drinkers. Since 1958 doubleing of price by taxes. State monoploy for imports, production and retail sales. Sweden still one of the lowest levels of per capita consumption and alcohol related harm in western Europe.By mid 1990 staemonoploies exceptfor retail sales were abolished in connection with the EU memebeshiip negotiation. Beer prices decreased by about 20% in 1997. To maintain public support for the retail monopoly marked increase in number of alcohol shops as well as opening hours. Eg saturday opening. Increase of licened restaurants by 25%. Steep increase in alcohol consumption form 9 litres in 1996 to 10,4 in 2004. Including increase among women above the age of 50 years because of bag in box wines. Mostly increased beer and wine consumption (spritis fall from 70% to 25% of total consumtion. Pattern: Heavy drinking at few occasions during weekend and celebrations. Alcohol mortality has remained fairly stable from 1995 to 2003. One of the strictest drinking and driving regulations in th world with 0.2 promille.
    Quelle: Norstrom 2006 Addiction
  • 12-14 litres alcohol per year in Russia. 70-80% vodka and illegally prodiced distille spirits. One third of males admit binge drinking at lieast once per month. Russion moicide and suicide mortality rates are among the highest in the world. 5x higher than USA 15-20 times higher than Europe.
    Quelle: Pridemore & Chamlin 2006 Addiction
  • 115,2 l Bier, 5,7l Schnaps und 19,9 l Wein. Ergibt 10,01 l pro Kopf. Sinken der Alkoholpreise im Vergleich zu Lebensmitteln. Deutschland gehört in duropa zu den Ländern mit höchsten Rate an alkoholbedingten Todesfällen. 10,7% aller durch Behinderung, Verletzung und Krankheiten verlorenen oder beeinträchtigten Lebensjahre durch Alkohol verursacht. Absatz von Biermischgetränken seit 2005 um 15,3% erhöht. Ruckgang von Alkopops bei 12 - 25 Jährigen (BZGA). Reduzierter Alkoholanteil in Alkopops von 5,5 auf 3 % um Kostensteigerung durch Steuer seit 2004 zu entgehen. Höchste Steuer auf Spirituosen und Sekt. Biersteuer sehr gering. Deutlich unter Eu Schnitt. Von 23 EU Staaten Deutschland mit 6 Staaten keinerlei Werbebeschränkungen (Keine Kinowerbung vor 18,00 Uhr, §11 Jungenschautzgesetz).
    EU weltweit Region mit dem höchsten Alkoholknsum Tab 194 Jahrbuch Sucht 07. Europa ist weltweit die Region mit dem höchsten Alkoholverbrauch
    Ein Viertel der Weltalkoholproduktion und mehr als die Hälfte des Weins werden in Europa erzeugt. Die EU ist an 70% der Alkoholexporte beiteiligt.
    Quelle: Jahrbuch Sucht 07
  • Alcohol in Slovenia
    Increase form 9.4 (1991) to 11,7 litres (2004). Also unrecorded alcohol consumption of 5-7 litres. Very low price. Wet culture. Only 15% of adults and less than 10% of young people abstain. 40% of 10 year old drink, 14% drunk. 20,7% of male and 15,4% of female positive AUDIT. Highest rate of liver diseases in Europe. Physician F.W. Lppich proposed alcohol treatment 170 years ago. One third of psychiatric admission. Minimum drinking age 18. ,5 Promille driving.
    Quelle: Cebasek-Travnik 2007 Addiction
  • Alcohol in Nigeria
    Adoption of Sharia law in some majority Muslim states in northern Nigeria 7 years ago was followed by many cases of communal violence. Alcohol has come to symbpolize the perennial leigious divid and was a socurce of conflict between the 2 religious communities in northern Nigeria. No evidence that the alcohol industry has sufferend in any sign way. Alcohols priviliged position at the centre of social events across the country remains unchallanged.
    3 major categories of traditional drinks: 19 premented products, 2) plam wine, 3) gin-like distillates. Except the last alcohol was consumed were it was prodcuced. Industrial productio of western beer started in 1949 with the founding of the Heineken sponsored Nigerian Brewery in Lagos and strengthened with the first Guinness brewery outside the UK.
    Compared to Europe abstentin rates are high in Nigeria especially among women. But hihgest overall per capita consumption in Africa. Increase form 8 literes in 1981 to 10 litres in 2001. Most popular drink is western commerical beer. High level of drinking to intoxication. Growing availability and consumption of alcohol beverages coupled with lack of attention to the health and social consequences of alcohol.
    Quelle: Obot 2007 Addiction
  • Hazardous drinking was strongly associated with being unemployed in Russia and with levels of household wealth/amenities. Associations of all these variables with daily amount of drinking were weaker. Hazardous behaviours show a very clear socioeconomic pattern. In contrast more conventional measures of heavy drinking based on frequency of consumption are weaker associations with socioeconomic position.
    Quelle: Tomkins et al 2007 Addiction
  • Alcohol in Mexico
    Absence of public awareness. When Spaniards arrived in 1519 pulque produced over 8000 years. Producing a ritual inebration accepted by society. People born under the astologica sign of the rabbit would be inenvitably inclined towards drinking. By the Spaniards the number of drinking occasions was augmented by the adoption uf numerous Cathoic festivals and along with te reduced rigor of the Indian authorities to punish wrongdoing led to an increase in abuse. The catholic religion shared the normative discourse of the old religions but lacked an effective means of enforcement. Lack of a temperance tradition. Consumption rising from 1970 to 4,5 litres in 2004. 40% of distilled beverages come from informal production or smuggling adding 1 more litre. Beer 70%, spirits 20% and wine 1%. Still 3% pulque. Fiesta drinking: low freqzency but high level of intake per drinking occasion. In 20th century sign. decrease in female abstainers. Also decreas in the peak age of drinking among males. Conditions that increase riks: High percentage of teetotalers, daily consumption is uncommon, drinking not associated with meals, infrequent but heavy drinking, often outside home.
    Alcohol abuse 9% of total burden of illness. 12% male and 1% female alcohol dependent but only 1/5 with more than 3 syptoms of ICD 10. Early start untreated for a long time. Greatest number of AA in the world.
    Quelle: Medina-Mora 2007 Addiction
  • Alcohol in Japan
    Alcohol only in shinto rituals but not by individuals for enjoyment on a daily basis: Seishu (distilled from rice) and shochu. Since 1850 people began to enjoy alcohol more frequently. Increase ince World war  II. Change of taste: increase in beer,while seishu declined. Diversivicationof drinking population. Small portion of import. Illegal prducton disapeared. Alcohol relatively cheap. Decline of average consumption from 8,4 litres in 1980 to 7.7 litres in 2004. Rapidly aging society. Increase of female drinkers. 0,8 million alcoholics. No alcohol under age of 20 permitted. Alte chinesische Weisheit: Akohol ist der König aller Medizin". Shrinking membership and ageing of selfhelpgroups.
    Quelle: Higuchi et al 2007 Addiction
  • The link between alcohol consumption and consequences is not deterministic as evidenced by weak correlations. Changing societal thresholds of what is considered alcoholrelated harm creating a scenario where percieved harm rates increase during a period of declining consumption, with a decreasing thershold of what is percieved as harmful. Alcohol consumption apperas not to be the only factor that influences the report of the 6 adverse consequences in our study. Demonstrated that the driving force behind selfreported alocholrelated consequences was alcohol consumption per se rather than other factors. Differences in attribution of onse ohn alcohol consumption to these consequences.
    Quelle: Kuendig et al 2008 European Addiction Research
  • 100 top movies released each year from 1089 to 2002 analyzed for alcohol contents. Telephone survey of 6522 US adolescents 10-14 years. Exposure to 534 movies. 83,0% of the movies contained at least one occurrence of alcohol use. 52,1% of movies contained 1 or more alcohol brand apperances. On average adolscents were exposed to a mean of 243,8 alcohol brand appearances from the 534 movies . Over half of the G and PG movies (specifically marktd for children and young adolscents) protrayed alcohol use and almost one in five featured an identifiable alcohol brand
    Quelle: Dal Cin et al 2008 Addiction
  • Alcohol misuse costs Estonia more than EUR 200 million in 2006.
    Quelle: Saar 2009 Europan Addiction Research